Security that is based on zero trust can be applied in a multitude of ways. Zero Trust security models can be divided into the following two categories:
- Network Access with Zero Trust (ZTNA)
- Access to zero-trust applications (ZTAA)
- Access with zero trust
Zero Trust Network Access (ZTNA) what is it?
Zero Trust Network Architecture, or ZTNA, often refers to software defined perimeters. In the absence of a VPN, ZTNA employs microsegments and network isolation for providing access to the network after verification.
In a ZTNA model, access to a set of named entities is restricted through the use of a trust broker. By verifying the participant’s identity, context, and policy compliance before granting access, and prohibiting lateral movement throughout the network, the broker minimizes the attack surface, thereby reducing security risks.
VPN vs. ZTNA
ZTNA is characterized by a perimeter-based security approach that provides network-wide access, whereas VPNs grant access only to specific resources after authentication and verification; in contrast, VPNs offer network-wide security.
By implementing more granular controls and reducing the attack surface, ZTNA enhances security around internal and external networks. Additionally, ZTNA provides improved resource utilization and reduces strain on IT due to its flexibility and scalability.
In addition, ZTNA can adapt to meet the needs of an increasingly remote and distributed workforce, making it a great option for CISOs and IT leaders.
ZTAA is an acronym for the ZTAA Association.
Unlike ZTNA, ZTAA also utilizes Zero Trust principles, but it goes a step further by protecting not only the network but applications as well. Until users and devices are verified, ZTAA assumes that all networks are compromised. As a result of this approach, attackers are effectively blocked from entering the network and connected applications are protected.
What is implicit Zero Trust Access?
With Zero Trust Access, we provide end-to-end Zero Trust across your entire architecture-including your networks and applications. It covers both Zero Trust Access and Zero Trust Network Access. In addition to assessing who is on a network, it extends Zero Trust to the provider itself, providing identity-based security. This provides organizations with unprecedented levels of data privacy.
Nonetheless, organizations wishing to adopt a pure zero-trust model face a significant challenge in that a Zero Trust Access model requires a thorough rethinking of your network and VPN protocols, which requires significant resources, investment, and support.
Defensive Zero Trust policy
To meet the security needs of today’s complex network infrastructures, Zero Trust security is composed of several core pillars. In categorizing and implementing a Zero Trust environment, each of these pillars represents a key focus area.
Security of identities
Identities are attributes or sets of attributes that identify a specific individual or entity. It involves identifying and validating users trying to connect to the network with authentication and access control policies. This pillar is often referred to as workforce or user security. Identifying the right users at the right time depends on dynamic and contextual data analysis. The policies in this pillar will utilize role-based authentication and attribute-based access control (ABAC) for authorizing users.
The security of endpoints
Endpoint (or device) security is similar to identity security in the sense that it performs system of record validation for devices connecting to the enterprise network. This applies both to user-controlled devices and autonomous devices, including the internet of things (IoT). Maintaining device health is an important part of this pillar.
All agency devices (such as mobile phones, laptops, servers, and IoT devices) should be inventoried and secured so that unauthorized devices cannot access the network.
A security assessment of an application
Both on-premises and cloud-based systems and services are covered by application and workload security. To successfully adopt a Zero Trust posture, it is crucial to secure and manage the application layer. Across the network, data collection and unauthorized access are prevented by wrapping workloads and compute containers in security.
Keeping data secure
Data security and access control are the main responsibilities of the data pillar. This is achieved by categorizing data and then isolating it from all but users who require access. Using a robust Approach to Zero Trust, this process involves classifying data based on mission criticality, determining the location for data storage, and developing an appropriate data management strategy.
Analyses and visibility
A thorough understanding of all security processes and communications related to access control, partitioning, cryptography, and other Zero Trust components can provide important insights into user and system behavior. Monitoring your network at this level improves threat detection and analysis while empowering you to make informed security decisions and adapt to ever-changing security landscapes.
Automate manual security processes that apply consistent policies across an enterprise to increase efficiency, reduce human error, and increase performance.
The security of infrastructure
System and service security ensures that unauthorized access or vulnerabilities are not present in workloads.
The security of a network
As part of the network pillar, it is important to protect sensitive resources from unauthorized access.
Micro segmentation techniques are used to implement network access controls, define network access, and encrypt traffic end-to-end.